By Department of Defense
This public-domain division of safeguard box guide, referred to as a battlebook, is designed "to handle operational well-being matters in environments the place Nuclear, organic, and Chemical (NBC) threats exist. power NBC threats variety from guns of mass destruction to illness of the battlefield by means of damaging fabric. clinical body of workers, together with chemical team of workers, has to be in a position to propose commanders on quite a lot of concerns together with the well-being results of NBC threats, protecting garments and measures, and administration of NBC casualties. it really is meant to supply a short reference for selection making… for infantrymen within the box or education for the field." This thorough textual content, illustrated with many tables and drawings, covers basic Operational points, Nuclear guns, Radiological risks, organic, and Chemical. each bankruptcy offers amazing information and targeted details.
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Extra info for 21st Century Terrorism, Germs and Germ Weapons, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) Warfare - Army Medical NBC Battlebook
Neutrons. The initial radiation can be divided into two components, neutrons and gamma rays. As a general rule, the neutron-to-gamma ratio decreases with the range from the weapon’s ground zero. The ratios for vehicles and shelters depend on the specific neutron and gamma protection factors associated with the vehicle or shelter. For a tank, the protection factors are about 2 and 10 for neutrons and gammas, respectively. 5. Residual Radiation. The residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion is radioactive fallout and neutron-induced activity.
The principal physical effects of nuclear weapons are blast, thermal radiation (heat), and nuclear radiation. These effects are dependent upon the yield (or size) of the weapon expressed in kilotons (KT), physical design of the weapon (such as conventional and enhanced), and upon the method of employment. Table 2-L: Percent of Energy 50 35 4 Distribution of Energy from Nuclear Detonation Physical Appearance Blast Thermal radiation Initial ionizing radiation (neutrons and gamma rays emitted within the first minute) 10 Residual nuclear radiation (fallout) 1 Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) NOTE: For a low altitude detonation of a moderate-sized (3 to 10 KT) weapon Reference: Figure 2-1 from FM 8-10-7.
Reference: Chapter 5 from FM 8-9 (Part I). Table 2-N: Organs The hematopoietic and the gastrointestinal systems Skin; cornea & lens of eyes; gastrointestinal organs; cavity, esophagus, stomach, rectum Growing cartilage; the vasculature; growing bones Mature cartilage or bone; lungs; kidneys; liver; pancreas; adrenal gland; pituitary gland Muscle; brain; spinal cord Relative Radiosensitivity of Various Organs Relative radiosensitivity High* Fairy high Medium Fairly low Low *Embryonic tissue is also highly radiosensitive Reference: Table 5-IV from FM 8-9 (Part I).