Organic Chemistry

Download Advanced Organic Chemistry, Fourth Edition - Part B: by Francis A. Carey;Richard J. Sundberg PDF

By Francis A. Carey;Richard J. Sundberg

The regulate of reactivity to accomplish particular syntheses is without doubt one of the overarching pursuits of natural chemistry. within the decade because the ebook of the 3rd variation, significant advances were made within the improvement of effective new equipment, relatively catalytic strategies, and in ability for regulate of response stereochemistry. This quantity assumes a degree of familiarity with structural and mechanistic suggestions akin to that during the better half quantity, half A, constructions and Mechanisms. jointly, the 2 volumes are meant to supply the complicated undergraduate or starting graduate pupil in chemistry with a enough origin to realize and use the study literature in natural chemistry. the hot Revised fifth variation may be on hand presently. For info, click the hyperlink within the right-hand column.

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Extra resources for Advanced Organic Chemistry, Fourth Edition - Part B: Reaction and Synthesis

Example text

Una parte importante de la química orgánica se dedica a encontrar estas reacciones, cómo suceden y cómo pueden emplearse para sintetizar las sustancias que queremos* ¿Qué tiene de especial el carbono para formar tantos compuestos? La respuesta a esta pregunta se le ocurrió a August Kelculé en 1854 durante un viaje en ómnibus en Londres. «Era una noche de verano* Regresaba en el último ómnibus absorto, como siempre, por las calles desiertas de la ciudad, que a otras horas están llenas de vida. , Vi cómo» frecuentemente, dos pequeños átomos se unían formando un par; vi cómo uno más grande aceptaba dos más pequeños; cómo uno aún mayor sujetaba a tres e incluso a cuatro de los mas pequeños, mientras el conjunto continuaba arremolinándose en una danza vertiginosa.

I y el agua íH : Oi. ilustran cómo pares de electrones no compartidos pueden afectar a la estructura molecular N 1J 2J O O 2p O l . 12). El cuarto o r b i t a l sp 3 del nitrógeno contiene un par de electrones. H H M x H H w w H w H g . 12 Formación de enlaces: molécula de N H j . ía) Orbitales sp1 tetraedricos* (6) Forma predicha, indicando el par no compartido: núcleos de H ubicados para solapamicnto máximo, (c) Forma y tamaño. Si ha de haber solapamicnto máximo, y por tanto fuerza máxima de enlace, los tres núcleos de hidrógeno deben localizarse en tres vértices de un tetraedro, mientras que el cuarto deberá ser ocupado por un par de electrones no compartido.

Hoy, menos del 10 % del petróleo utilizado se consume en la fabricación de productos químicos; la mayor parte. sencillamente, se quema para proporcionar energía* Afortunadamente, existen otras fuentes de energía: la solar, la geotérmica y la nuclear, pero ¿dónde habremos de encontrar una reserva sustitutiva de materias primas orgánicas? Tarde o temprano, por supuesto, tendre­ mos que volver al lugar de donde proceden originalmente los combustibles fósiles la biomasa— aunque ahora directamente, prescindiendo de los milenios que intervinieron.

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