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By George F. Vande Woude (ed.), George Klein (ed.)

Offers necessary info at the fascinating and fast-moving box of melanoma research. Outstanding and unique experiences are awarded on a number of issues.

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Extra resources for Advances in Cancer Research, Vol. 108

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We recently investigated the independent and interactive effects of each known viral factor on the development of HCC. Compared with patients with low HBV load and the BCP A1762/ G1764 wild-type strain, the adjusted OR of developing HCC was more than 30-fold in patients with an HBV load ! , 2006a) (Table III). , 2008). 67) for BCP A1762T/G1764A versus wild type. 001), independent of serum HBV DNA level. Studies of HBV-related HCC in patients without cirrhosis may help to explain the direct effect of viral factors in HCC development.

In summary, genetic variations in cytokine and DNA repair genes contribute to the susceptibility to HBV-related HCC, and smoking seems to increase such genetic susceptibility. V. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF HBV-RELATED HCC As chronic HBV infections is a common cause of HCC, the best and costeffective strategy to prevent HBV infection is to implement universal hepatitis B vaccination (Asia-Pacific Working Party on Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, 2010). Ample evidence documents that vaccination of newborns against HBV infection in Taiwan has effectively reduced persistent HBV infections from 15% in the pre-vaccination era to < 1% in the post-vaccination era (Kao and Chen, 2008).

These data suggest that virologic differences may exist among HBV genotypes; however, whether immunopathogenesis differs between various HBV genotypes need further studies. , 2007a). This observation may correlate with different outcomes of immunomodulatory treatment and the progression of liver disease in HBV carriers infected with different genotypes. In summary, virologic differences and subsequent interactions with host immune responses may influence clinical outcomes and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with different HBV genotype infections.

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