By M H Faber; Jochen Köhler; Kazuyoshi Nishijima
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Malfunction curve of manholes and sample data used in the calculation of regression. Table 2. Estimated co-efficient of malfunction curve of sewerage pipes. 10 Ratio of Malfunction λ 150 Figure 3. Physical damage ratio of fragility curve of manholes and sample data used in the calculation of regression. Table 1. Estimated co-efficient of fragility curve of sewerage pipes. C 100 Maximum Ground Velocity (cm/s) Figure 2. Malfunction curve of sewerage pipes and sample data used in the calculation of regression.
This contribution discusses the evaluation of interventions to restore sufficient structural safety of existing bridges as encountered in real case applications. The considered hazard scenarios include accidental actions and one extreme live load event. For all hazard scenarios, structural safety check could not be fulfilled. Consequently interventions to restore structural safety were developed and their efficiency was analysed by a comparison of risk reduction with respect to safety costs. In addition, safety requirements, operational availability of the structure, magnitude of damage as well as the preservation of material and cultural values were considered.
A modified time reversal method was developed to enhance the applicability of the process by decreasing the necessary hardware to monitor the health of the structure. Two damage indexing systems, as developed by Park et al (2003 and 2007) and Giurgiutiu (2008), were used to evaluate the effects of severity of damage. It was found that both damage indexing evaluations increased as severity of damage increased, verifying the ability of the modified time reversal method to determine not only the presence of damage, but also the severity.