By Martin Rowland, Steve Potter
Excellent for revision, those publications clarify the unit necessities, summarise the content material and contain specimen questions with graded answers.
Martin Rowland has taught and tested A-level Biology for over 30 years and is presently a Chair of Examiners in Biology. he's co-author of the winning titles AQA Biology for AS and AQA Biology for A2, released via Hodder schooling.
Read Online or Download AQA AS Biology Student Unit Guide : Unit 1 Biology and Disease PDF
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Extra info for AQA AS Biology Student Unit Guide : Unit 1 Biology and Disease
For the process of simple diffusion, the relationship between the above points is expressed in the formula: rate of diffusion ∝ ●● surface area × difference in concentration thickness of exchange surface (diffusion distance) For facilitated diffusion, this formula is modified to: number of transport proteins × difference in concentration rate of diffusion ∝ thickness of exchange surface (diffusion distance) Key facts you must know and understand Figure 33 shows the location of some transport proteins and outlines the mechanism of the uptake of sodium ions and of glucose.
B It is important to write that these arteries carry blood to heart muscle. c This is wrong — smoking is not directly linked to high cholesterol levels. d,e These factors and their explanations are correct and score 2 marks. Unit 1: Biology and Disease 59 Questions & Answers Student B (a) (i) Coronary artery a (ii) They carry blood rich in oxygen to the cardiac muscle b so that it can release energy c for contraction d. (b) Stress can lead to higher blood pressure. Hypertension (sustained high blood pressure) can increase atherosclerosis.
Some bacteria have a ‘capsule’ outside the cell wall. Lipopolysaccharide capsule Peptidoglycan cell wall Main DNA molecule Flagellum Plasma membrane Plasmids Figure 34 The cholera bacterium (Vibrio cholerae) The cholera bacterium (Vibrio cholerae) causes disease in the following way. ●● It is transmitted in polluted water. ●● In the small intestine, the bacterium anchors itself to the epithelial cells, multiplies and produces a toxin. ●● The toxin affects transport proteins in the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells.