Astronomy

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By Jean-Pierre Lasota

Astronomy is through nature an interdisciplinary job: it comprises arithmetic, physics, chemistry and biology. Astronomers use (and frequently strengthen) the newest expertise, the quickest desktops and the main sophisticated software program. during this booklet twenty-two top scientists from 9 international locations discuss how astronomy interacts with those different sciences. They describe smooth tools utilized in astronomy and the kinfolk among astronomy and know-how, undefined, politics and philosophy. in addition they talk about what it potential to be an astronomer, the background of astronomy, and where of astronomy in society at the present time.

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There are claims that the ratio of the frequencies of spectral lines changes with redshift, implying that the fine structure constant (the constant involved in the calculation of energy levels in atoms and molecules) had a different value in the early Universe. Even more ambitious ideas are that cosmological observations can test the Copernican principle [31] or constrain the existence of other universes, some of which may be governed by entirely different laws of physics [28]. How confident we have become in the use of the Universe as a laboratory (see Ellis chapter)!

For each technique, the detected neutrino rate from various experiments is compared to the expected rate using the standard solar model and weak interaction model. The contribution to the neutrino rate from each nuclear fusion process ongoing in the Sun (p − p, 8 Be, etc) is detailed in the theoretical bar plot. The uncertainties in the expected and detected rates are also shown. Some of the detection techniques clearly led to large disagreements between expected and detected neutrino rates. The 40 year long effort to understand whether the discrepancies revealed problems with nuclear, solar or neutrino physics led to the discovery of neutrino oscillations.

G. g. stellar evolution). The relevant use of the Universe as a laboratory for high-energy physics, especially when it comes to finding evidence for new physics, requires well-identified astrophysics. 3 Divergence Differences will and should remain between astrophysics and high energy physics. A recent CERN press release stated that as soon as they have “re-discovered” the known Standard Model particles, a necessary precursor to looking for new physics, the LHC experiments will start the systematic search for the Higgs boson [7].

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