By Thanu Padmanabhan
India has a robust and old culture of astronomy, which seamlessly merges with the present actions in Astronomy and Astrophysics within the nation. whereas the more youthful new release of astronomers and scholars are kind of conversant in the present amenities and the astronomical learn, they won't have an both reliable wisdom of the wealthy historical past of Indian astronomy. this actual quantity, introduced out as part of the Platinum Jubilee Celebrations of Indian nationwide technological know-how Academy, concentrates on chosen features of historic improvement of Indian astronomy within the kind of six invited chapters. of the chapters – by way of Balachandra Rao and M.S. Sriram – disguise historic astronomy and the advance of calculus within the historic Kerela textual content Yuktibhasa. the opposite 4 chapters by means of B.V. Sreekantan, Siraj Hasan, Govind Swarup and Jayant Narlikar take care of the modern historical past of Indian astronomy overlaying house astronomy, optical astronomy, radio astronomy and advancements in relativistic astrophysics. those chapters, written through specialists within the box, offer an in-depth research of the topic and make this quantity really unique.
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Beginning of the transit (I contact, external ingress): BEGG = MIDDLE - HDUR 17. Beginning of the totality (II contact, internal ingress): BEGGT = MIDDLE - THDUR 18. Middle of the transit is the instant of greatest obscuration. 19. End of the totality (III contact, internal egress): ENDT = MIDDLE + THDUR 20. End of the transit (IV contact, external egress): END = MIDDLE + HDUR June 8,2004 m Fig. 2 Summary of the Circumstances of Venus Transit of June 8,2004 By following the procedure described in the earlier section, we get the local circumstances: (All timings are in 1ST) Beginning of the transit BEGG = lOh40m (External ingress) Beginning of totality BEGGT = lO h 59 m (Internal ingress) Middle = 13 h 52m End of the totality ENDT = 16h 44m (Internal egress) End of the transit END = 17 h 03 m (External engress) We note that according to modem computation, the instants of beginning, middle and the end are respectively lOh45 m, 13 h51m and 16h5S m (1ST).
4 There is a more specific reference to the location of Jupiter in the following mantra from the Taittiriya Samhita: brhaspatih prathamam jayamanastisyam naksatramabhisambabhuva II I "Brhaspati. " - Tai. Sam. 5 Again, the conjunction of Guru with Pusya naksatra (8 Cancri) being a rare event, it is worth investigating when this special conjunction took place so that on that basis the date of the Rigveda can be fixed. The latitude of Pusya is 0°004'37" north, very close to the ecliptic. The sidereal longitude is about lO4°052'.
15) . [3SP. [3 sm = Opsm . l6) ~ = [3. SP. l7) When [3 and ~ are small, this reduces to OP OP is the bhii-tiirii-graha-vivara or the earth-planet distance, while SP is the sun-planet distance. This is exactly the same as the relation Eq. 51 in the appendix in Kepler's model, relating the geocentric latitude [3E and the heliocentric latitude [3s.