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By Marshall J., Plumb R.A.

For complicated undergraduate and starting graduate scholars in atmospheric, oceanic, and weather technology, surroundings, Ocean and weather Dynamics is an introductory textbook at the circulations of the ambience and ocean and their interplay, with an emphasis on international scales. it is going to provide scholars an outstanding take hold of of what the ambience and oceans appear like at the large-scale and why they appear that means. The position of the oceans in weather and paleoclimate is usually mentioned. the mix of observations, idea and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments units this article aside by way of making it obtainable to scholars with out earlier education in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical point that's attractive for undergraduates andbeginning graduate scholars* offers an invaluable academic device via a mix of observations andlaboratory demonstrations that are considered over the internet* comprises directions on the way to reproduce the easy yet informativelaboratory experiments* contains copious difficulties (with pattern solutions) to assist scholars research thematerial.

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Equating Eq. 2-1 with Eq. 2-3 gives Te = S0 (1 − αp ) 4σ 1/4 . (2-4) Note that the radius of the Earth has cancelled out: Te depends only on the planetary albedo and the distance of the Earth from the Sun. Putting in numbers, we find that the Earth has an emission temperature of 255 K. 1 lists the various parameters for some of the planets and compares approximate measured values, Tm , with Te computed from Eq. 2-4. The agreement is very good, except for Jupiter where it is thought that about one half of the energy input comes from the gravitational collapse of the planet (see Problem 3 at end of this chapter).

6. 2. 6. (a) A sketch of the laboratory apparatus used to study convection. A stable stratification is set up in a 50 cm × 50 cm × 50 cm tank by slowly filling it up with water whose temperature is slowly increased with time. This is done using (1) a mixer, which mixes hot and cold water together, and (2) a diffuser, which floats on the top of the rising water and ensures that the warming water floats on the top without generating turbulence. Using the hot and cold water supply we can achieve a temperature difference of 20◦ C over the depth of the tank.

We suppose the atmosphere has absorptivity , that is, a fraction of the IR upwelling from the surface is absorbed within the atmosphere (so the case of Fig. 7 corresponds to = 1). Now again if we insist that in equilibrium the net flux at the top of the atmosphere vanishes, we get 1 (1 − αp )S0 = A ↑ + (1 − ) S ↑. 4 (2-10) Zero net flux at the surface gives 1 1 − αp S0 + A ↓= S ↑. 4 (2-11) Since at equilibrium, A ↑= A ↓, we have S ↑ = σTs4 = 2 1 1 − αp S 0 = σT4 . (2 − ) e 2 (2 − ) (2-12) Therefore, Ts = 2 2− 1/4 Te .

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