By Michio Kaku
What's superstring conception and why is it vital? Can superstrings provide the fulfilment of Einstein's lifelong dream of a idea of every little thing? Co-authored by way of Michio Kaku, one of many best pioneers of superstrings, this can be a exciting account of the discoveries that experience led scientists to the brightest new prospect in theoretical physics this present day. With the entire pleasure of a detective tale, this booklet comprises the latest ground-breaking examine in physics, and gives a desirable examine the medical study which can make the most unlikely attainable.
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Additional info for Beyond Einstein: Superstrings and the Quest for the Final Theory
Fortunately, the application of quantum mechanics yields an acceptable solution to them both. One of the most puzzling features of our universe, as we look around the heavens, is that it seems so flat. This is unusual because, from Einstein's equations, we would expect the universe to have some measurable curvature, either positive or negative. Second, the universe, no matter where we look, has the same uniform density of galaxies. In fact, if we look at a galaxy, say, a billion light-years in one direction and another billion light-years in another direction, the universe seems pretty much the same.
Magnetic fields normally cannot penetrate superconducting material (which has zero electrical resistance and is cooled to near-absolute-zero temperatures). However, magnetic fields can penetrate certain types of superconductors and form strings of condensed magnetic fields. Thus, magnetic fields, instead of being pervasive, are concentrated into thin strings that penetrate this superconductor. Similarly, cosmic strings may be likened to condensed subatomic fields from the early universe. They have no ends; they are either closed or are infinitely long.
What if our universe is not the lowest-energy universe possible? What if another universe exists that has even lower energy, and a sudden quantum transition occurs? This would be catastrophic. In the new vacuum, the laws of physics and chemistry might be rescrambled beyond recognition. Matter, as we know it, might not even exist, and totally new laws of physics and chemistry could appear. It's often said that the laws of physics are immutable. However, if the universe makes the sudden quantum leap to a lower-vacuum state, then the very laws of physics as we know them also may change beyond recognition.