By Michael L. McKinney, James A. Drake
How will styles of human interplay with the earth's eco-system impression on biodiversity loss over the lengthy term--not within the subsequent ten or perhaps fifty years, yet at the mammoth temporal scale be handled by means of earth scientists? This quantity brings jointly facts from inhabitants biology, group ecology, comparative biology, and paleontology to respond to this question.
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Extra info for Biodiversity Dynamics: Turnover of Populations, Taxa, and Communities
Thus, clade 2 diversiﬁes at a faster rate than clade 1 when there are few species, and it has a higher equilibrium species number. , diversiﬁcation is not exponential). during a 1-my interval were calculated from the number of speciations (ns ) and extinctions (ne ) per interval as n − ne r = ln 1 + s S  where r is an estimate of the average value of (S ) over any given 1-my interval, and S is the number of species present at the start of that interval (Stanley 1979; Maurer 1989).
If true, animal species occupy niches that may be diﬃcult to dislodge by competition, so that incumbency plays a major role (discussion and evidence in Roy 1996; Sepkoski 1996), even at the population level. A few years ago, it would have been acceptable to formulate the supertaxa concept in terms of r-K theory. However, as reviewed by Stearns (1992), classic r-K theory is a gross oversimpliﬁcation that does not accurately describe population dynamics among closely related species. In fact, the very existence of ecological supertaxa helps explain why: Widely abundant generalist species are not limited to inhabiting disturbed environments.
G. plants and insects in successional habitats (Harrison and Taylor 1996). However, metapopulation models have since been applied to a far broader range of phenomena. Much theory has been devoted to showing that pairs of species incapable of coexisting locally, such as strong Do Taxa Persist in Evolutionary Time? 1. Four types of metapopulation structure: classic (a), mainland–island (b), patchy populations (c), and nonequilibrium (d). Filled circles represent habitat patches that currently support populations; empty circles are temporarily vacant habitat patches; dotted lines represent the lifetime movement radii of individual organisms; arrows represent dispersal between patches.