By Robert B. Allen, William G. Lee
Man’s fresh colonization of latest Zealand has dramatically altered the resident biota and led to the advent of diverse alien organisms to those as soon as distant islands. In opposite, there's expanding facts of a lesser identified export of species to different areas of the area. This quantity offers an in-depth evaluation of the extent and expense of such invasions, and investigates what controls the good fortune of invaders and the implications for ecosystems either on land and offshore. It offers invasion biologists far and wide with checks of present theories approximately these elements resulting in the good fortune of invaders in addition to comparing ideas for realizing the character in their affects that shape an outstanding foundation for the powerful administration of organic invasions all over the world.
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Additional resources for Biological Invasions in New Zealand (Ecological Studies)
Alien invasive species with both serious agribusiness and conservation impacts have invariably been priorities for research. The outstanding recent example is the Australian brushtail possum, which is a known major vector of livestock disease, and a threat to some native forest plant and animal species. The possum is universally ranked as a major pest, occurring in ca. 98 % of the country, and possum research in New Zealand is funded to a level of NZ$ 24 million per annum, which is an order of magnitude above the level of expenditure on any other single invasive alien species (Montague 2000).
Because of their widespread impacts, some non-native invasive species have achieved keystone status in natural ecosystems. Evidence for impacts on native vegetation and birds, and as a vector for serious animal diseases, is reviewed in Chapter 17 for the Australian brushtail possum. The functional role of native keystone species may also be significantly affected by invasive alien species, and Chapter 18 outlines the multi-trophic impacts of non-native invertebrates (wasps) capturing most of the carbon- and energy-rich honeydew produced by native scale insects on Nothofagus trees in warm-temperate forests.
One of the oldest pollen types in New Zealand is the early Cretaceous Clavatipollenites (near identical to Ascarina lucida), and this pollen type has been continuously present ever since (Mildenhall 1980). However, extant Ascarina lucida in New Zealand can be no more than 18–9 Ma old, and is in all likelihood a relatively recent arrival from the subtropics (Zhang and Renner 2003). Ancient genera such as Laurelia (Atherospermataceae) appear to have dispersed from southern South America to New Zealand ca.