By Vladimir Strezov, Tim J. Evans
This article is a completely updated therapy of the entire to be had applied sciences for biomass conversion. each one bankruptcy seems on the viability and implementation of every know-how with examples of present apparatus and vegetation. additionally, the textual content addresses the economics of biomass processing. The ebook may be used as a supplementary textual content for senior undergraduate classes on biomass processing.
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Extra info for Biomass processing technologies
46 References................................................................................................................ 1 Introduction There are three primary technology categories used for the thermal-based conversion of biomass into electricity. Each category has undergone significant development, and therefore, many different methods are available. Pyrolysis is the thermal destruction of biomass in an anaerobic environment, without the addition of steam or air, to produce gases and condensable vapours (Bain et al.
The Clean Energy Council (CEC 2008a) found that, unless stationary energy prices and CO2 taxes increase significantly, dedicated energy crops are unlikely to be economically viable. The CEC (2002) also state that dedicated energy crops only make sense in the medium term for combating salinity, land erosion and loss of biodiversity. Dedicated energy crops are less viable than crops with multiple economic benefits. Strezov et al. (2008) and Hoogwijk et al. (2009) believe that the production of energy crops on Sustainability Considerations for Electricity Generation from Biomass 37 abandoned agricultural land and land at rest may allow for large amounts of biomass to be produced at a reasonable cost.
9 11 21 21 2 6 6 16 17 13 16 15 20 20 30 22 37 62 76 74 1 2 3 5 6 6 6 6 7 9 10 13 21 25 34 49 Mineral matter is the major constituent of the biomass post-processing residues. Depending on the initial composition and elemental concentration of the mineral matter, the end-use application of the biomass post-processing residues can be planned. High nutrient (N, P, K) concentration in the postprocessing residues would mean their application as fertilisers. However, the presence of toxic metals in the post-processing residues and ashes is a major limiting factor for the further use of these residues.