Atomic Nuclear Physics

Download Cathodic Arcs: From Fractal Spots to Energetic Condensation by André Anders PDF

By André Anders

Cathodic Arcs: From Fractal Spots to lively Condensation is the 1st publication in over a decade devoted to the physics and expertise of cathodic arcs. It incorporates a distinctive account of arc historical past, a textbook-like advent to cathode phenomena, and a few uncomplicated physics of increasing plasmas; it bargains with the notorious macroparticle factor and describes a bunch of sensible plasma filter out options. not like past books on cathodic arcs, the point of interest is at the relation of arc plasmas and their homes to floor amendment and skinny movie deposition. The publication includes sections on simple plasma physics and skinny movie fabrics technology. It additionally bargains with useful problems with coatings similar to pressure keep watch over and the often-underrated factor of the coating’s colour. via stressing the fractal nature of cathode spots, the topic of fluctuations are available during the publication: fluctuations have an effect on all plasma houses and thereby have outcomes for plasma-based floor ameliorations and movie development. precise reasons are complemented through compilations of plasma and fabrics info prepared in Periodic Tables.

Cathodic Arcs: From Fractal Spots to lively Condensation is written with researchers and complicated scholars within the fields of fabrics technological know-how and plasma physics in brain. it really is compatible either as a reference paintings for the professional in addition to an creation for beginners to the interdisciplinary fields of plasma-surface interplay and plasma-assisted deposition of skinny films.

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Additional resources for Cathodic Arcs: From Fractal Spots to Energetic Condensation

Example text

Holding a drop of mercury as one electrode, was . . brought to the charcoal, which is connected to the other pole of the battery, then also between them a more or less bright flame appears, from which the mercury burns, but the end of the wire, almost in an instant, becomes red glowing, melts, and starts burning with a flame and throwing a very large number of sparks in different directions. ([40] pp. 165–166) While the carbon arc may have quickly switched into thermionic mode, the iron wire ‘‘throwing sparks in different directions’’ was certainly in the cathodic arc mode, emitting the characteristic incandescent macroparticles.

630, 636–637) With these observations, Lecher is one of the pioneers of the cathodic arc mode; he anticipated what we now call explosive electron emission. 13 Goldstein’s Canal Rays Among the many interesting experimental approaches in the second half of the nineteenth century to the physics of gas discharges and related phenomena belongs the discovery of canal rays, or ion beams as would we say today. Eugene Goldstein reported to the Academy in Berlin, Germany, that one can observe fine beams emanating from small holes drilled in the cathode of a glow discharge tube [63].

The Mercury Arc in Vacuum Building on numerous investigations of mercury discharges in air and in glass tubes at low pressure, the arc discharge was once more considered for lighting purposes at the beginning of the twentieth century. It was realized that the arc in mercury vapor appeared very different depending on the electrode polarity or direction of current and therefore it could also be used as a rectifier for AC currents. 20. He found a number of important Fig. 20. Discharge tube used by Weintraub for cathodic arc experiments.

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