By Nichola Foskett, Jane Hemsley-Brown
Schooling is turning into extra aggressive - selection in schooling is now a key factor. This ebook can help mom and dad, colleges, faculties, universities and coverage makers know how schooling and coaching markets paintings. opting for Futures deals a breathtaking point of view on how youth, and their mom and dad, make offerings as they go back and forth via a life of schooling and coaching. The authors problem conventional perspectives of ways offerings are made up of basic college, secondary university, collage, collage and profession, which imagine that offerings are rational and goal. as an alternative this e-book finds how offerings depend on a number of elements: *young people's own experiences*individual and kinfolk histories*perceptions of schooling and careers.The booklet compares selection for five to eleven yr olds, and for sixteen and 18 yr olds; drawing out types of the choice making method, and whilst the implications on colleges, schools and members of 'enhanced choice'.
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Extra resources for Choosing Futures: Young People's Decision-Making in Education, Training and Careers Markets
These ways of coping with the conﬂict an individual experiences after reaching a solution form a major part of the process of avoid- Motivation, rationality and the reality of choice 41 ing regret after the decision is announced. Dissonance is in some ways a form of psychological stress, and produces an impact on the choice process that can be similar to that generated by stress from external sources – for example, pressure to make choices being imposed by other people, such as the pressure from parents on a 17 year old to choose what they will do after A-levels.
87) These forms of defensive avoidance seem to prevail in cases where the individual feels s/he has not really been able to make an entirely satisfactory decision, through lack of real choice, or where signiﬁcant dissonance exists after the choice has been made. Janis and Mann (1977, p. 205) claim that ‘when conditions making for defensive avoidance are present the individual becomes closed-minded and biased in his information preferences’. This is exempliﬁed in young people’s choice of FE institution where research shows that 42 Choosing Futures individuals tend to bolster the attractiveness of the organisation they have selected, giving a higher attractiveness rating to the chosen organisation and lower ratings to the unchosen ones, compared with their initial ratings for the same organisations (Vroom, 1966).
Only with the arrival of information that demonstrates explicitly that taking the line of least resistance will produce a negative outcome for the child or young person will there be enough momentum to overcome the inertia of such choices. The idea of dissonance in decision-making has emerged from theories of cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1964). Dissonance is the existence of contradictory ideas that an individual cannot reconcile. It may occur both in the choice-making process where the individual must deal with ideas and information which challenge existing beliefs or views, and also in the period after a choice has been made when discrepancy between the expected satisfaction and beneﬁts of a choice and the reality of an experience emerge.