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By John McManners

This can be the 1st of 2 volumes in McManner's magesterial reconstruction of the complicated hierarchical international of the Gallican Church destroyed by means of the French Revolution. It describes the diocesan and parochial constitution of the Church, portraying the clergy and their way of life from the palaces of the aristocratic bishops to the humblest nunnery, and, in a mess of photographs, interpreting their motivations and feel of vocation. In a close fresco he provides the faith of the folks, even if centering within the parish church or in confaternities, and the observances of people faith open air it.

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55 It was hardly a declaration of the divine right of kings. But there were no earthly sanctions against the misdemeanours of a sovereign. Bossuet's ‘Ye are gods’ was less a declaration of adoration, than a threat of mortality and the judgement of the next world, allied to an admission of impotence on the part of the subject in this. A Christian could remonstrate and, even, disobey if he was prepared to be struck down, but he was not entitled to revolt. Even as late as 1663, the Sorbonne had defended the possibility of launching an ecclesiastical excommunication against a tyrant.

1789), ridiculed theories of political contracts made among men who had sprung up from the earth as isolated individuals; in reality, God created men with reciprocal rights and duties from the beginning. There was an original social nexus, and from it systems of government had arisen; we must accept them, since ‘the harshest of governments is a lesser evil than anarchy’. 51 The argument from anarchy is strong, but ambiguous so far as monarchy is concerned. Any port will do if the storm is wild enough.

37 The affair of the archbishop's cross was typical. Prickliness about precedence was an occupational disease of courtiers, and religious ceremonies were the same as any others where pride was concerned. 38 Thereafter, they boycotted the Maundy Thursday foot-washing (la Cène) of the king: some of them went instead to the queen's. In 1746, they boiled over with rage because the boy duc d'Antin, merely for the fun of it, carried the king's dishes to the poor; they blamed his mother for letting him out that morning.

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