Environmental

Download Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for by L. Buys, K. Mengersen, S. Johnson, N. van Buuren, A. PDF

By L. Buys, K. Mengersen, S. Johnson, N. van Buuren, A. Chauvin

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Read or Download Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: Assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry PDF

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Extra resources for Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: Assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry

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Many agents including heavy metals, organic solvents, and pesticides, such as dibromochloropropane, have been associated with gonadotoxicity [93, 94]. Also, industrial lead exposure exerts direct harmful effects on both seminiferous tubules and the hypothalamic pituitary axis, resulting in decreased sperm counts, motility, as well as morphology and ultimately leading to infertility [94–96]. Furthermore, an association between aromatic solvents and impaired semen parameters has been demonstrated, irrespective of the exposure assessment method used [95].

These alterations include more oval spermatozoa [16], head defects [6, 27], and cytoplasmic droplets [30] compared to normal semen samples. Thus, in addition to oligospermia and azoospermia, heavy smoking can also lead to teratozoospermia [13]. Spermatozoa Structure and Proteins While semen parameters are a convenient way to assess the reproductive capability of spermato- 2 The Effect of Smoking on Male Infertility 21 Fig. 1 A summary of the general categorical effects of smoking on male infertility.

Guzick DS, Overstreet JW, Factor-Litvak P, Brazil CK, Nakajima ST, Coutifaris C, Carson SA, Cisneros P, Steinkampf MP, Hill JA, Xu D, Vogel DL. Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(19): 1388–93. 84. Esteves SC, Zini A, Aziz N, Alvarez JG, Sabanegh Jr ES, Agarwal A. Critical appraisal of World Health Organization’s new reference values for human semen characteristics and effect on diagnosis and treatment of subfertile men. Urology. 2012;79(1): 16–22.

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