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S. voltage supplying the anode circuit is as shown in the equivalent circuit of Fig. 34. T-VAi)(ra 2 Lfr. + ^ D V ! + R'L)'] M2r. + Äi) J Therefore, ° R'Alir. + RDy/li rt2ra + R'L) J| l ' ' When this is a maximum, dPJdR'L = 0. Differentiating and equating to zero gives, 2R'L{2ra + R'L) = (2ra + R>L)\ Therefore, R'L = 2ra. 38) Now substitute for R'L = 2ra in the following equations. 1. 29) Anode efficiency η = — x 100%. 2+P 2r a Therefore, η = 25%. 2. 40) 40 WORKED EXAMPLES IN BASIC ELECTRONICS 3.

The equivalent circuit of Fig. 43 may be used in place of Fig. 42 if the assumptions are valid. 53 DERIVATION OF BASIC FORMULAE 2. A rise on the grid of the basic circuit of Fig. 41 increases valve conduction. This results in an increase in current flow through Rk and the output voltage V0 therefore rises. 71)). 3. f. in the simplified equivalent circuit is a constant voltage generator of/xVin/(l +μ) volts, which has an internal resistance of r fl /(l+/x). This is the output resistance R0 of the circuit.

84) Hence, the proportion of this which is fed back is ßxD. After amplification this becomes mßxD, and this voltage is 180° out of phase with the original distortion voltage D. Therefore, the new distortion voltage D' which appears in the output is given by D' = D-mßxD. 85) gives xD = From which or x(l+mß) D-mßxD. 87) Summary 1. The distortion introduced in the output stage of an amplifier without feedback can only be reasonably compared with the distortion introduced by the same output stage when feedback is applied, if the amplifier voltage output is the same in each case.